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Download Biological Rhythms by Jürgen Aschoff (auth.), Jürgen Aschoff (eds.) PDF

By Jürgen Aschoff (auth.), Jürgen Aschoff (eds.)

Interest in organic rhythms has been traced again greater than 2,500]ears to Archilochus, the Greek poet, who in a single of his fragments indicates ",,(i,,(VWO'KE o'olos pv{}J.tos txv{}pW7rOVS ~XH" (recognize what rhythm governs guy) (Aschoff, 1974). Reference can be made to the French pupil of drugs J. J. Virey who, in his thesis of 1814, used for the 1st time the expression "horloge vivante" (living clock) to explain day-by-day rhythms and to D. C. W. Hufeland (1779) who referred to as the 24-hour interval the unit of our normal chronology. even if, it was once now not until eventually the Thirties that genuine development used to be made within the research of organic rhythms; and Erwin Bunning used to be inspired to post the 1st, and nonetheless no longer outmoded, monograph within the box in 1958. years later, in the course of fascinating discoveries, we took a breather on the chilly Spring Harbor Symposium on organic Clocks. Its survey on ideas thought of legitimate at the moment, and Pittendrigh's looking ahead to view at the temporal association of dwelling structures, made it a milestone on our method from a extra formalistic description of organic rhythms to the knowledge in their structural and physiological basis.

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The organism fails to achieve the same average period as that of the applied cycle) does not mean that this particular environmental cycle can be disregarded as a potential entraining agent. The most sensitive test for the possibility of entrainment requires that the environmental cycle be presented with large-amplitude variation in its "intensity," and that the cycle be presented in a regime, the period of which differs only slightly from that of the unentrained period of the organism's rhythm.

Freerunning period is illustrated as being essentially constant during prolonged freerun as well as after phase shifting; the entrained phase relationship is illustrated as unaltered after the phase shift I'lf the zeitgeber; and the period of the rhythm, at a given level of the constant stimulus, is illustrated as unchanged over repetitive trials. Such idealized behavior permits easy interpretation, but a large body of experimental evidence indicates that this kind of reproducibility is not typical of real experimental animals.

A similar kind of averaging procedure can also be utilized during stable freerun, in cases in which two separate biological rhythms are monitored in the same individual, with the objective of specifying the average timing relationship between events in the two rhythms. There are, however, two sorts of problems in the general use of such procedures: (1) the reliable cycle-by-cycle determination of discrete phase-reference points in a data series may be difficult, particularly when the measured variable oscillates in a continuous fashion with a large "noise" component, rather than as a sequence of discrete, on-off events; and (2) the description of a data series in terms of only a single series of once-per-cycle events potentially disregards a great deal of information contained in the full record: the choice of what to describe or summarize may well inject an important element of hypothesis into the description.

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