By Duncan McConnell B. S., M. S., Ph.D. (auth.)
The training of a quantity in this subject used to be undertaken with a few hesitancy on my half as the ramifications of the mineralogy of apatite contain either bio logical and actual sciences in very complex methods. This hesitancy could have arisen partially from the belief that significant ability will be required that allows you to extract the which means from the hundreds of thousands of papers that experience seemed in the previous two decades; the duty of trying to extract and gather the usable info appeared titanic. tremendously including to the trouble used to be the truth that a substantial section of those magazine articles comprise not anything of worth and extra confuse a most complicated subject. however, it used to be inspiration that a few of my formal schooling within the bio logical sciences, which has been enormously prolonged and augmented in past times fifteen years, will be built-in with my extra vast schooling and adventure in chemistry, crystallography, mineralogy, geology and physics so one can seasoned duce anything that will relate to the mineral apatite and its tremendous diversified occurences in nature. even as it appeared necessary to indicate the various many very important features during which this information bears on geology, agriculture, chemical engineering, medication and dentistry.
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Extra resources for Apatite: Its Crystal Chemistry, Mineralogy, Utilization, and Geologic and Biologic Occurrences
Structure It is difficult to imagine an ordered structure containing coordinated groups of thls magnitude without the consequences of a superstructure, of which there is no clear evidence. Furthermore, there is optical evidence [215, 147] that the C0 3 Fig. 9. Diagrammatic representation of 3 P0 4 -+ 4 OOa. Small open circles are C atoms and large shaded circles are HaO+ at (0, Yz c). The arrow indicates the origin which is the viewpoint for Fig. 10. (MCCONNELL [140J) f-=~_~ -()-~ . J -T- . -f-~ Fig.
HUMMEL ) (KREIDLER & COCKBAIN  separates apatites (including analogues of vanadinite, mimetite and pyromorphites) into three categories based on the raties of the radii of A and X ions of AlO(X04)6Z2. As in the work of KREIDLER & HUMMEL , COCKBAIN apparently used the radii of AHRENS , making adjustments for coordination numbers. However, it should be indicated again that there is a dependency upon the size of the halogen or hydrox:yl (or ox:ygen) ien which is not taken into account by COCKBAIN.
3. Electrical and Other Properties The dielectric constant (i. , the specific capacity of a material referred to the specific capacity of a vacuum) is given [35, p. 47 for radiofrequencies. 60. 69. Additional data are given by W APPLER . Theoretical discussions of the low dielectric loss of hydroxyapatite are not edifying insofar as they are based on an inadequate "refinement" of the location of the OH ions within the structure . Piezoelectric properties are not consistent with the space group P63/m, of course, so the attribution of such properties to bone implies that car-Hap has a less symmetrical structure; if piezoelectric properties are to obtain for the aggregation, the individual crystallites must have piezoelectric characteristics.