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By Donald Piermattei, Kenneth A. Johnson

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Extra resources for An Atlas of Surgical Approaches to the Bones and Joints of the Dog and Cat 4th Edition

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CLOSURE The intermuscular septum between the digastricus and masseter muscles is closed, with care being taken not to impinge the facial vessels. Platysma muscle is included with subcutaneous fascia in a separate layer. The Head ■ Plate 7 Approach to the Caudal Shaft and Ramus of the Mandible Shaft of mandible Mylohoideus m. Periosteal incision Platysma m. , superficial portion Digastricus m. Ventral buccal br. of facial n. B Digastricus m. elevated from mandible Styloglossus m. C Facial a. and v.

COMMENTS The caudal brain stem and cranial spinal cord may be exposed by elevating the muscles from the atlas and performing a dorsal laminectomy on this vertebra. The Head ■ 45 Plate 11 Approach to the Caudal Surface of the Skull External occipital protuberance Occipitalis m. Cervicoscutularis m. Cervicoauricularis superficialis m. Incision B Incisions Temporalis m. Nuchal crest Splenius capitis m. C Rhomboideus m. Splenius capitis and rhomboideus mm. Foramen magnum Dorsal arch of atlas (C1) D Occipital bone Spinous process of axis (C2) SECTION III The Vertebral Column ■ Approach to Cervical Vertebrae 1 and 2 Through a Ventral Incision ■ Approach to Cervical Vertebrae 1 and 2 Through a Dorsal Incision ■ Approach to Cervical Vertebrae and Intervertebral Disks 2-7 Through a Ventral Incision ■ Approach to the Midcervical Vertebrae Through a Dorsal Incision ■ Approach to Cervical Vertebrae 3-6 Through a Lateral Incision ■ Approach to the Caudal Cervical and Cranial Thoracic Vertebrae Through a Dorsal Incision ■ Approach to the Thoracolumbar Vertebrae Through a Dorsal Incision ■ Approach to the Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disks Through a Dorsolateral Incision ■ Approach to the Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disks Through a Lateral Incision ■ Approach to Lumbar Vertebra 7 and the Sacrum Through a Dorsal Incision ■ Approach to Lumbar Vertebrae 6 and 7 and the Sacrum Through a Ventral Abdominal Incision ■ Approach to the Caudal Vertebrae Through a Dorsal Incision 47 48 ■ The Vertebral Column Approach to Cervical Vertebrae 1 and 2 Through a Ventral Incision Based on a Procedure of Sorjonen and Shires43 INDICATIONS 1.

Brachialis Subscapular a. Axillary n. Caudal circumflex humeral a. Radial n. Median n. Ulnar n. Biceps brachii Anconeus Extensor carpi radialis Common digital extensor Flexor carpi ulnaris, ulnar head Lateral digital extensor Ulnaris lateralis Abductor pollicis longus Note: All muscles of the shoulder girdle, the deltoideus, and the triceps brachii have been removed. General Considerations ■ Plate 3 Deep Musculature of the Canine Thoracic Limb, Medial View Attachment of rhomboideus Attachment of serratus ventralis Subscapularis Teres major Spinal nerves: T1 C8 C7 C6 Latissimus dorsi Supraspinatus Tensor fasciae antebrachii Triceps brachii: Long head Medial head Coracobrachialis Brachial a.

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