By Peter Kapusta, Michael Wahl, Rainer Erdmann
This quantity specializes in Time-Correlated unmarried Photon Counting (TCSPC), a strong instrument permitting luminescence lifetime measurements to be made with excessive temporal solution, even on unmarried molecules. Combining spectrum and lifelong presents a “fingerprint” for settling on such molecules within the presence of a history. Used including confocal detection, this enables single-molecule spectroscopy and microscopy as well as ensemble measurements, establishing up an important variety of scorching existence technological know-how functions equivalent to fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and dimension of Förster Resonant power move (FRET) for the research of protein folding and interplay. a number of technology-related chapters current either the fundamentals and present state of the art, particularly of TCSPC electronics, photon detectors and lasers. the remainder chapters hide a large diversity of functions and methodologies for experiments and knowledge research, together with the lifestyles sciences, illness facilities in diamonds, super-resolution microscopy, and optical tomography. The chapters detailing new ideas coming up from the mix of vintage TCSPC and fluorescence lifetime with tools in response to depth fluctuation characterize a very distinct highlight.
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Additional info for Advanced Photon Counting: Applications, Methods, Instrumentation
Science 302(5643):262–266 Single-Photon Counting Detectors for the Visible Range Between 300 and 1,000 nm Andreas Bu¨lter Abstract Single-photon counting in the visible spectral range has become a standard method for many applications today, ranging from fluorescence spectroscopy to single-molecule detection and quantum optics. One of the key components for every setup is single-photon sensitive detectors. , high detection efficiency at a large wavelength range, high temporal resolution, and low dark counts, does not exist.
2 Detection Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 25 25 27 28 29 30 30 30 31 A. com 23 P. Kapusta et al. 1007/4243_2014_63, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014, Published online: 20 November 2014 24 A. 3 Dark Counts and Afterpulsing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Timing Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other detectors which are also suited for photon counting in the visible range such as superconducting nanowires or transition edge sensors are covered in more detail in the next chapter as they are typically used for photon counting in the infrared. 1 General Description Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are the most established detectors for single-photon counting. The first PMT was already demonstrated in the mid-1930s, after intensive studies of the photoelectric effect and secondary emission multipliers (dynodes) .