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Download Acre 1291: Bloody sunset of the Crusader states by David Nicolle PDF

By David Nicolle

In April 1291, a Mamluk military laid siege to Acre, the final nice Crusader fort within the Holy Land. for 6 weeks, the siege dragged on till the Mamluks took the outer wall, which were breached in different areas. the army Orders drove again the Mamluks briefly, yet 3 days later the interior wall was once breached. King Henry escaped, however the bulk of the defenders and lots of the electorate perished within the struggling with or have been offered into slavery. The surviving knights fell again to their fort, resisting for ten days, until eventually the Mamluks broke via. This ebook depicts the dramatic cave in of this nice citadel, whose loss of life marked the tip of the Crusades within the Holy Land.

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Extra info for Acre 1291: Bloody sunset of the Crusader states

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Three such zones were pinpointed: the Armenian garden, the Patriarch Pool and the Burj al Laqlaq area. Though the latter was reserved for public gardens and parks,39 it seems possible to affirm – with the insight of what has subsequently happened elsewhere in the city – that it had already been identified as a zone suitable for the creation of new housing for Jewish settlers. 43 Heritage, history and ideology The ‘adaptation’ of the city to the new political situation, however, has been pursued not only through planning, expropriations and settlements, but also through transforming myths associated with Jerusalem and its symbolic significance.

Archaeological excavations had to stress and produce the eternal link between the city and its Jewish identity. 52 Such a message needed to stress the singularity of the city for the Jews and could not deal with a more prosaic reality. The architectural environment of the rebuilt quarter, therefore, had to deal with these principles and images, more than with the reality of a rundown, poor and modest urban fabric. The renewed quarter had to become the symbol of the nation; its new houses had to ‘resurrect’ from the ruins a faraway and mythical past to symbolize the future of the Jewish people and the rebirth of the national Jewish state.

Zionism centred on the concept of the ‘redemption of the land’ and on the transformation of Jewish immigrants into agricultural pioneers and there was not, at the beginning, a defined approach to the role, function and shape of the city in the new land. The official rhetoric celebrated the agricultural pioneer, the ‘new man’, in opposition to the industrial worker, the central figure of European capitalistic development and urban growth. 7 For most Zionist authors, the past was associated with the image and symbol of Jerusalem, while the future, the brave new world, is represented by the kibbutz or by Tel Aviv, the Jewish metropolis.

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