By Lorenzo Magnani
This quantity explores abductive cognition, an incredible yet, at the very least till the 3rd zone of the final century, missed subject in cognition. The booklet goals at expanding wisdom approximately inventive and professional inferences. The research of those high-levelmethods of abductive reasoning is positioned on the crossroads of philosophy, common sense, epistemology, synthetic intelligence, neuroscience, cognitive psychology, animal cognition and evolutionary theories; that's, on the middle of cognitive technology. Philosophers of technology within the 20th century have frequently amazing among the inferential tactics energetic within the common sense of discovery and those lively within the common sense of justification. so much have concluded that no good judgment of artistic procedures exists and, in addition, rational version of discovery is very unlikely. in brief, medical artistic inferences are irrational and there's no “reasoning” to hypotheses. nonetheless, a little research within the region of man-made intelligence has proven that equipment for discovery may be stumbled on which are computationally sufficient for rediscovering – or researching for the 1st time – empirical or theoretical legislation and theorems.
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Extra resources for Abductive Cognition: The Epistemological and Eco-Cognitive Dimensions of Hypothetical Reasoning
It is possible to treat every good inductive generalization as an instance of abduction [Josephson, 2000]. 14 1 Theoretical and Manipulative Abduction predominant in neopositivistic philosophy but also present in the anti-inductivist tradition of falsificationism [Popper, 1959]. In summary, it is important to note that if in diagnostic settings and in the classical syllogistic framework I am illustrating in this chapter we basically refer to induction simply as a way of confirming or discounting hypotheses, in various cases of mathematical reasoning, where model-based and manipulative abduction is at play, induction “also” plays the usual generalizing role.
53] the question was controversial in Peirce’s writings too. 624]. 776]. Thagard ascribes to the editors of Peirce’s work the responsibility for having clouded this change in his thinking by including discussions of hypothesis under the heading of “Abduction”, “[. . ] obscuring his shift from the belief that inference to an explanatory hypothesis can be a kind of justification to the weaker view that it is only a form of discovery”. The need for a methodological criterion of justification is caused by the fact that – at least in the Peircean framework – an abduced hypothesis that explains a certain puzzling fact should not be accepted 30 A more detailed description of abductive reasoning in diagnosis (and in “medical” diagnosis) is provided in my book [Magnani, 2001b, chapter four] and in [Gabbay and Woods, 2005, chapter six].
We know that throughout his career Peirce defended the thesis that, besides deduction and induction,20 there is a third mode of inference that constitutes the only method for really improving scientific knowledge, which he called abduction. Science improves and grows continuously, but this continuous enrichment cannot be due to deduction, nor to induction: deduction does not produce any new idea, whereas induction produces very simple ideas. New ideas in science are due to abduction, a particular kind of non-deductive21 inference that involves the generation and evaluation of explanatory hypotheses.