By Jeanne Fahnestock
Whilst it was once first released in 1982, A Rhetoric of Argument built a ground-breaking new method of instructing argument. The stasis technique pioneered by means of Fahnestock and Secor unusual one of the 4 simple questions that arguments are written to answer:
What is it? (Definition arguments) How did it get that method? (Causal arguments) Is it solid or undesirable? (Evaluation arguments) What may still we do approximately it? (Proposal arguments)
These 4 questions, now typical in lots of argument texts, provide scholars a positive, attractive option to examine readings through different writers and to build their very own arguments.
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Extra info for A rhetoric of argument
Suppose you begin by listing all the reasons you can think of for not wanting to declare a major. 1. I'm not just interested in one thing: I like botany, English history, 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. mechanical drawing, acting, and finance. I don't know why the college should dictate what courses I have to take. Who's paying for this education anyway? I know lots of former graduates who don't work in the field they graduated in. If I had to take twelve courses in the same area I'd be bored to death. No one in this school can predict what knowledge will be necessary ten years from now, or what new careers will evolve.
We usually do not formulate claims with precise numbers in anything but scientific or technical writing. A FEW FEW Can you sense a difference between these two propositions? 1. Few newspapers in this country are organs of political ideology. 2. A few newspapers in this country are organs of political ideology. The second, with "a few" modifying the subject, requires in support a series of examples of newspapers that fit the predicate. You would make a case for perhaps two or three or four separate newspapers.
Thus, the second essential element of argument i " an audience that the arguer wants to have an effect on, whether to make them believe something, to increase their belief in something, or to urge 24 WHAT WE DO NOT ARGUE ABOUT them to act on that belief. Of course it is possible to argue with oneself, but only by temporarily splitting the self into two personalities, the one waiting to be convinced by the other. The particular audience of an argument influences how you arguecoolly or with passion, tentatively or with strong conviction, elliptically or in great detail.