By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This ebook is the main complete reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken by way of nearly 11 thousand humans positioned essentially in Mississippi and Oklahoma. in keeping with nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than a hundred and fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar comprises the main whole description to this point of the morphology of the language in addition to an intensive therapy of word constitution, notice order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe was once divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams through the Indian removing of the 1830s. at the present time the vast majority of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years previous, and few childrens converse the language. even if extra kids one of the Mississippi Choctaws study the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is key to holding the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is significantly very important. Compiled through the major scholarly specialist at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a realistic consultant to local audio system and an critical instruction manual for linguists.
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Extra info for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
General rules of Choctaw phonology Nicklas (1974) and Ulrich (1986) are the principal sources for a detailed discussion of Choctaw phonology. My remarks here summarize the work of Ulrich, which should be consulted for further information. In the present section, I discuss general ("postlexical ") phonological rules of the language. 6. 2, between slashes / /. 1. 1. ' Ulrich (1986:53) claims that rhythmically lengthened vowels are phonetically shorter in duration than underlying long vowels. A similar rule applies in Chickasaw, and Gordon, Munro, and Ladefoged (1997) provide instrumental evidence for shorter duration of lengthened vowels in that language.
Transitive verbs also fall into several classes (I/II, I/III, 11/11, II/III, III/II), depending on the sort of agreement with subjects and objects: (11) Chi-pisa-li-h. ' (I/II) (12) Chi-pga-li-h. ~sIII-c~~~-~sI-TNs 'I call you. ' (I/III) (13) Chi-sa-banna-h. ' (14) Chi-sa-yimmi-h. ' (II/III) (15) Chi-am-ahchiba-h. ' (III/II) Verb agreement is discussed in more detail in chapter 9. 3. 1. Equational sentences Equational sentences are those in which the identity of two noun phrases is asserted. These correspond to English sentences with a copula and a predicate nominal.
6:22) (25) Nash6oba'-mat chishn-ak a-ttook-g? ' (said in discussing a school play) (26) Nashdoba '-m-akoosh alla ' nakni '-m-ak a-ttook. ' (27) An-ak aa-tok. ' (28) An-ak @-aachj-h. 2. Locational and possessive sentences Locational sentences are those in which the location of some noun phrase is specified. Sentences of this type do not use the copula as in English, but instead use a small class of verbs of position. ittila-h. ' (30) 'Holisso '-mat aa-&a- ' pakna ' aa-tok. ') Sentences that show possessive relationships typically use the same small class of verbs of position along with 111-agreement (dative) on the verb: 36 CHOCTAW REFERENCE GRAMMAR (31) Ho1isso'-mat am-ittcjla-h.